Project Note

This page presents a more or less complete catalog of the objects found in the field "Mästermyr" in Gotland, Sweden.  This catalog is taken directly from the book with permission of the publisher and is formatted for easy discovery and interpretation of the elements relevant for anyone wishing to engage in reproducing anything contained herein.  Each item is titled in bold and underlined text with the item number also embolded at the end of each title line.  The broader catergories are formatted in bold and italicized text in 18 point type to easily distinguish them from actual objects.  Each description is appended with the objects' basic dimensions, given in metric units.  This is the best information we have on the find and should be sufficient to enable anyone to produce a faithful copy of any given item, though certain objects are in such a state of decay that a considerable amount of imaginative interpolation/extrapolation will be required on the part of the artist.  This, of course,
is part of the fun intended to underlie this effort.

My best wishes to one and all who choose to volunteer for this project, and my hat's off to you all.

    -Andy Vida


by Greta Arwidsson

The objects in the find have been given many different sets of numbers, which has made it particularly difficult to produce a systematic account. For the purposes of this publication I have used the numbers In the main catalogue of the State Historical Museum throughout. Where objects have been signed, these are the numbers which occur on them.

A draft description was written by Greta Arwidsson for the museum's catalogue early in 1937 before conservation began. The present account is mainly based on this draft and its accompanying detailed drawings. It has only been necessary in some cases to add information about the condition of the objects after conservation; the objects which arrived in the museum in the autumn of 1937 (see above) are also described. In the museum's main catalogue the find was given the number 21592.

The subsidiary numbers from the museum catalogue have been used in the present account, and these numbers also appear in the illustrations. Thus the reference 'PI. 16:31' indicates that the fire-grid no.31 is illustrated in PI. 16.

The Chest  Pls. 1 and 15: 132, 13-16

Chest of oak with lock and hinges of iron.
The chest is rectangular with a lid curved in cross section and a flat bottom. The bottom is joined to the ends by mortice and tenon joints. The chest is held together by wooden pegs at the ends and sides. The ends and sides are trapezoid and therefore slope Inwards at a slight angle. The ends, which are made of a slightly thicker scantling than the sides and the bottom, have a rectangular mortice about 4 cm from the lower portion of each end thus forms a raised base.

The ends, sides, bottom and lid each seem to have been made from a single piece of wood. The underside of the lid is hollowed out, leaving an oval, trough-Iike depression. On either side of the depression the under-side of the lid is flat, where the original thickness of the plank has been preserved; this provides a good fit
against the upper edges of the end planks.

The sides are pegged to the ends and the bottom andthe bottom is joined by mortice and tenon to the ends; arectangular tenon at each end of the bottom plank fits into a mortice in the ends. The details of the construction can best be seen in the illustrations.The wood seems less carefully dressed on the inside
than on the outside. However, it is difficult to comment on details of the finish or on any surface treatment of
the wood because of its poor condition.

The nature of the damage to the wooden parts of the chest is not easy to determine. About half of one end is missing and there are jagged, elongated holes in the lid and the back. While this damage could have been 1 caused either before or during the deposition of the chest in Mastermyr, it is equally possible that it resulted from decay or from rough handling when the chest was discovered. However, an oval-shaped hole in the lid seems to have existed in antiquity, as its edges are worn or deliberately smoothed down.

The iron fittings on the chest consisted of a large lock, along lock-plate and two hinges. The fittings are all fragmentary and were "possibly already defective by the time the chest served Its last purpose as a container for tools.

The lock (nos. 13-15), of which some parts are pre-served on the inside of the front, was a draw-Iock of a
common type. The bolt consists of a square rod, now damaged and bent at the end, with an expanded disclike central part. Riveted to the disc are the ward plate and three cruciform wards, each 0.5 cm high.

A 47 cm-Iong lock-plate of iron is nailed to the outside of the chest in front of the lock. The upper edge of
edge for the tenons of the bottom plank. The lower the plate (immediately below the top of the chest) and  the right-hand edge, show an original straight, clipped inish; the cut corner between these two edges also eems to be original. The other two edges are more or less incomplete. Only eight nails of the original twenty now remain. The nails are turned over on the inside of the wooden panel; they are each about 2.7 cm long. The heads ( diameter 1.2 cm are well-made and sIightly domed. The keyhole, now corroded, had one vertical and one horizontal slot set at right angles. Its form indicates a simple thin hooked key of a completely different type from the keys with multi-toothed bits which are included in the find (nos. 2 and 3). Two vertical holes near the ends of the lock-plate may have held staples in which the bolt engaged. On the front of heads of the plate, between the keyhole and the two smaller openings, are two pairs of thin hammered rivets which seem to have served to hold another pair of loops through which the bolt ran.

There were probably two hinges (nos. 13-16), each consisting of two iron straps of equal width fitted across the lid and two thirds of the way to the bottom of the back plank. Crosswise wood fibres can be seen on the back of the straps. One end of the strap of the best-preserved hinge is rounded and the other end has a loop. Three nails with domed heads are preserved: the longest is 3.3 cm and indicates the minimum thickness of the original plank. There are holes for another two nails. The other flange of this hinge is incomplete: it has traces of only one nail, and -an open hook at one end  which may be fragmentary or may have been damaged by bending. It would probably have been more closed, and would have engaged in the loop of the other half of the hinge. The mount with the closed loop was attached to the back of the chest and the other to the lid.

A fragmentary iron band with two remaining nail the type found elsewhere on the chest and with crosswise wood fibres on the back presumably represents the other hinge.

Chest: sides 86.0--88.5 x 20.5 x 1.8 cm and 87.5--89.5 x 20.9 x 1.8 cm; ends 22.4-26.2 x 1.8-2.5 x 24.2 cm and 21.5-26.3 x 23.8 x 1.8-2.7 cm; lid 88.5 x 24.0 x 3.2 cm.

Iron chain   PI. 16:17

The chain is made up of twenty-six figure-of-eight shaped links, one oval link and one circular link. The links are welded together and the joins are no longer visible. The figure-of-eight links were pinched together
with tongs while hot.

Total length 2.4 m; links 8.7-11.1 cm long; circular link a) the bronze nodes on the hook: four punched ring-diameter 8.4 cm; rods (square section) 0.8-1.0 cm thick.

It was reported that the chain was wound round the chest when it was pulled up by the plough. It was sufficiently long to have been wound twice round it, but the chain could equally have attached the chest to some larger object, such as some means of transport.

So far as I know, no simple Viking Age chain of comparable dimensions has been found in Scandinavia, and it is difficult to identify its original purpose. Links of a similar size have been found both in cauldron-chains and chains used as harnesses for carts and other vehicles (Stolpe and Arne 1912, Vendel I, V and XI; Arwidsson 1954 and 1977; Almgren 1946). However, this chain is considerably longer and heavier than those used for these purposes. The complete cauldron-chain from the Oseberg ship burial does have a total length of about 2 m, but this measurement also includes the two suspension hooks. The chain from Sutton Hoo, a uniquely fine example of metal-work, is much longer (3.75 m) and very strong (Petersen 1951,409; Bruce Mitford 1972, fig. 16-17).

Steelyard    Pls. 2 and 16:1

Steelyard of iron and bronze consisting of an iron bar of generally round section with a small bronze disc at one end. A decorated cylindrical mount, 3.5 cm from the hook end of the bar , and two faceted nodes are also of bronze. There are no visible gradations on the bar.

The hook is suspended from a U-shaped shackle (damaged near the rivet), and consists of a suspension loop, an expanded middle section with a bronze node above and below it, and a flat hook which terminates in a pointed beak. The middle section is made up of four twisted rods surrounding a cylindrical ring.

The weight takes the form of an irregular double cone with a wrought, closed suspension loop. It is likely that the small flat ring with a small perforated projection belongs to the weight, although the connecting link between the two is missing.

Two large flat rings were also found, one of. which is still attached to a U-shaped shackle closed by a rivet just in front of the hook. About 1 cm further along is another such crosswise rivet which could have secured another shackle in which the second, loose, ring could have been suspended.

Ornament of various kinds occurs on the following parts of the steelyard:

a) the bronze nodes on the hook: four punched ring-and-dot motifs are set together on the rhomboid facets, one on the triangular facets. However, on the lower
node, two opposite sides have animal head-like ornaments.
b) the lower, flat part of the hook: along the edges of
one side are punched triangular impressions; the other side was probably undecorated.
c) the larger, flat rings: on both sides are small triangular impressions (like those on the hook).

d) the cylindrical bronze mount on the bar: along each edge there is a row of ring-and-dot motifs between
beaded borders.
e) the weight: at the base of the upper cone a row of triangular impressions set closely together; on its surface some irregular and perhaps worn impressions of a similar design.
Length of hook 10.3 cm. Rings, diameter 2.3 cm, 5.0 cm the loose ring) and 5.5 cm; thickness 1.0,2.0 and 1.5 mm. Bar, length 35.3 cm; diameter (round end) 0.8-0.5 cm; (square end) 0.8-0.6 cm. Weight, before conservation 311 g.

Keys, lock parts and pad-locks

Key of bronze and iron   Pls. 4 and 19:2

Key with a four-toothed bit set at right angles to the shank. The upper part of the shank is spool-shaped and consists of eight twisted iron rods, a square collar and a faceted node of bronze. The rods are twisted alternately to the right and the left; internally they are supported by a round iron disc; a bronze strip, only half of which is preserved, encircles the widest part. Only a short stub remains of the key's suspens-ion loop. There are no traces of ornament.

Total length 21.4 cm; bit length 8.6 cm, thickness 0.8 cm.

Key of iron with wooden handle  Pls. 4 and 19:3

Key with a three-toothed bit set at aright angle to the shaft. It is made from a square iron rod fitted into a wooden handle. The wood has been identified as ash (see Appendix III). The original form of the handle cannot be determined.

Present length 19.6 m, of which the wood fragments cover 9.8 cm; bit length 9 cm, thickness 0.3 cm.

Lock-plate of iron    PI. 19:4

Sheet-iron lock-plate of irregular rectangular shape. It has four pins or rivet holes and the central part of one
side is turned up to form a rim 0.7 m high. The clipped edges of the plate are original. There is a row of rectangular holes (in which the teeth of the key fitted) in themiddle of the plate. No wood fragments were observed Padlock of iron Pls. 5 and 19: 11
before conservation.

9.6 x 4.5 cm. Thickness of plate 0.15 cm.

Lock-plate of iron    PI. 19:5

Fragmentary lock-plate with only one original edge.  In this edge and the opposite, damaged , edge there are two nail or rivet holes. There is the flat head of a pin or rivet near the row of keyholes. There are two separate rows of keyholes, one with three rectangular holes--apparently not in line—and the other two with only partly preserve rectangular openings.  The keyholes in the two groups arfe of different sizes.  No wood fragments were observed before conservation.

7.3 x 5.2 cm; thickness of plate 0.2 cm.

Lock-spring of iron    Pl. 19:6

Incomplete lock-spring with only one of the original three tongues preserved. In the middle there is a rivet hole.

15.1 x 2.4 x 0.3 cm.

Lock-spring of iron    Pl. 19:7

Lock-spring with three tongues, one of which is broken. In the middle there is a rivet hole. The tapering bolt is probably incomplete.

10..1 x3.1 xO.2cm.

Lock-spring of iron    Pl. 19:8

Iron sheet irregularly tongued at one end; this end is turned back and hammered down.  The other end is turned around and oval ring of round section.

10.5 x 2.7 x 0.3 cm; ring 5.1 x 3.9 x 0.5 cm.

(?)Lock-spring blank of iron    Pl. 19:9

Similar to n0.8, it has a tongued end, turned back and hammered down.  At the opposite end the sheet tapers and is turned round a aring of round section.

9.4 x 1.9 x 0.2 cm; ring, diameter 3.7 cm, thickness 0.4 cm.

Padlock of iron with brass solder  Pls. 5 and 19: 10

Padlock in two parts, with the bottom plate missing.  There are clear traces of a yellow metal solder – (?) brass – in the joins between the plates.  One of the short sides has a cylindrical socket in which the staple is engaged.  Each short side is decorated with three S-twisted iron rods.  The keyhole is T-shaped.  There re three springs.

4.5 x 3.0 x 2.2 cm; shackle height 2.3 cm, thickness of rod 0.4 cm; thickness of plate about 0.1 cm. mains.

Padlock of iron      Pls. 5 and 19: 11

Incomplete padlock similar to no.10 (above), although slightly smaller. The staple, part of the keyhole side and part of the bottom are missing. Only one spring remains intact. The decoration is similar to that on padlock no. 10 except that the rods are Z-twisted.

Padlock of iron      Pls. 5 and 19: 12

Incomplete padlock of the same typs as nos. 10-11(above). The staple and socket are missing as well as most of the keyhole side and the bottom. No springs remain. It is decorated with at least four Z-twisted rods.

2.8 x 2.2 x 2.6 cm; thickness of plate about 0.1 cm.

Cauldrons, (?)bucket and griddle

Griddle with rim of sheet-iron  Pls. 6 and 24:18

Round disc with up-turned rim and an irregular triangular hole in the middle. It is incomplete: more than a third of the rim and a portion of the bottom are missing. Part of the rim has been secondarily bent inwards. The griddle was repaired in antiquity with a triangular patch, riveted on with at least ten rivets. The patch is now partly detached.

Diameter 22.3 cm; thickness of plate 0.3-0.4 cm.

Cauldron of copper alloy   Pls. 11 and 24: 19

The almost cylindrical cauldron is made from four separate sheets joined together by overlapping and ‘stitching’: the edge of one sheet was inserted alternately over and under flaps cut at the edge of the sheet and secured by solderng. One sheet forms the bottom, two sheets make up the walls and the fourth is a 3.2 cm-wide strip lining the rim. This strip is thicker than the other sheets, especially along the upper edge. It was apparently lengthened with a smaller piece next to one of the handle attachments and reinforced by a bronze sheet folded over the rim. The bottom was probably slightly convex. The handle attachments consist of a circular iron plate and a ring-Ioop. Both are now broken off and one is fragmentary .The remains of an older attachment of copper alloy are probably preserved underneath the iron rivet of one of the iron handle attachments (see detailed drawing).

The cauldron is very fragmentary and battered. Old patches secured by numerous rivets can be seen in at least eleven places.  Before conservation the cauldron had a deposit of soot on the outside and a large amount of rust on the inside as well as another deposit, possibly of food remains.

Diameter about 26 cm, height 13.8 cm; thickness of The sides are straight and taper slightly towards the.plate 0.2 cm.bottom, which was probably slightly convex.  The iron band was made in two halves and riveted together with one rivet at each join.

Handle of iron   Pls. 10 and 24:20

The handle possibly belongs to the cauldron no. 19 ( see above). It is made from a flat rod of rectangular section and has open hooks at the ends. Its curvature has been exaggerated by bending and the distance between the hooks (outside measurement) is now only about 24.4 cm.

Length 24.4 cm, height 16.0 cm; rod width 1.2 cm, thickness 0.4 cm.

(?)Bucket mount of iron   PI. 25:21

Three pieces of a wide iron band, one edge of which is turned over. This was probably the rim mount of a (?)wooden bucket, with the remains of a riveted handle attachment. The longest piece is made up of two sheets joined together by a vertical row of rivets. A roughly rectangular mount, which clearly ends in a damaged loop just above the turned edge, is attached by rivets to the joined bands.

A rivet-hole about 4 cm from the upper edge of the other portion of the band suggests the position of the second handle attachment; there are also traces of rust here. At the lower edge of the band at least one rivet hole can be distinguished.

Band, width 9.9 cm, total length about 113 cm (70 + 23+ 20 cm); thickness of plate about 0.2 cm.

Fire grid of Iron   Pls.3 and 16:31

A square iron grid, originally suspended from four chains attached to a swivel-Ioop.

The frame of the grid is made from straight iron strips, riveted at each comer and bent at a near right angle along the middle to form a raised edge. The chains would probably have been attached to forged hooks at the ends of the strips (see detailed drawing). One of these hooks had secondarily been replaced by an Omega-shaped loop. The grid is made of ten parallel iron

Carpenters’ and (?) Blacksmiths’ iron tools.

Two files   Pls.7 and22:32-33

Files of rectangular section.  The larger file is cut on all four faces, one being markedly finer than the others.  The smaller file is cut on three faces, of which two are fine and the third rather coarser.  The tangs show no traces of wood.

No. 32: 21.6 x 0.8-1.1 x 0.5-0.9 cm.
No. 33: 16.9 x 0.5-1.0 x 0.4-0.6 cm.

Roundfile    PI.7:34

Strongly tapering tang of square section. The cut surface of the file covers about two thirds of the circumference. The tang shows no traces of wood.

15.1 x 0.4-0.7 cm.

File     PI. 23:35

File of rectangular section with coarse-cut surfaces on all four faces (5 cuts per cm). The point is very thin and has been damaged by bending. No visible traces of wood.

Overall length 16.1, length of cut section 7.8 cm, tang.8.3 cm, maximum width 0.9 cm, thickness 0.5 cm.

Rasp     PI. 23:37.

Coarse rasp of rectangular section and offset tang. Only one face is cut (4 cuts per cm).

Before conservation there were a few traces of wood on the tang.

Overall length 27.7 cm, tang 8.6 cm, width 1.5-1.0 cm, thickness 0.3-0.6 cm.

Rasp     Pls. 7 and 23:38

Similar to no. 37 (see above), but much smaller. Only one face is cut (about 11 cuts per cm); the cut area is, divided in half by a lengthwise groove.

Overall length 12.5 cm, tang 4.5 cm, width 0.9 cm, No.51: 16.6 x 0.5 x 0.7 cm; spoon length 2.2 cm,
thickness 0.5 cm. width 0.7 cm.

Knife     PI. 26:39

Knife with a long, straight tang and short blade; the back of the blade is straight and the cutting edge curved with a pointed angle between blade and tang. The back of the blade has a central ridge.

17.6 x 1.8 x 0.8 cm.

(?)Knife blade   PI.29:40

Fragmentary iron blade with straight back and cutting edge, broken off at the wider end (no trace of a tang).  Part of the cutting edge is serrated. The blade is damaged by bending and is tom in one place.

7.5 x 1.1 x 0.4.

Saw with wooden handle  Pls. 14 and 27:42

Broad hand-saw with teeth filed from opposite sides of the blade in groups of four. The straight back and edge of the knife-Iike blade are parallel for most of its length, but converge towards the point, the back showing the most pronounced curvature. The well-preserved handle is of ash, probably apiece of a branch, and is damaged at the end where the point of the tang is bent at right angles to the blade.

61.4 x 4.8 x 0.4 cm; handle 12.5 x 3.4 cm.

Six spoon-augers    Pls. 13 and 28:46-51

The six boring-bits are of different sizes but their form the same: they have spoon-shaped blades, rounded or faceted octagonal shanks and short pointed tangs of rectangular section. Four augers (nos. 46-49) retain an Iron collar whIch encircled a now decayed wooden handle.

Apart from minor damage, the augers are well preserved. Before conservation they were so rusty that the
collars went unnoticed.

No.46: 44.2 x 1.8 x 1.2 cm; spoon length 10.1 cm, width 1.7 cm; collar diameter 3.4 cm.
No.47: 37.0 x 1.5 x 2.1 cm; spoon length about 8.5 cm, width 2.9 cm; collar diameter 3.2 cm.

Before conservation this auger was rusted together with a round iron object 37.0 cm long and 1.5 cm in diameter and another smaller iron object 6.1 cm long (see nos. 52 and 125).

No.48: 37.0 (the points at both ends are broken) x 1.3 x 1.8 cm; spoon present length 8.1 cm, width 1.9 cm; collar diameter 3.0 cm.

No.49: 34.8 x 1.2 x 1.8 cm; spoon length 8.0 cm, width 1.9 cm; collar diameter 2.7 x 4.3 cm.

No.50: 24.4 x 1.0 x 1.4 cm; spoon length 4.8 cm, width 1.4 cm.
No. 51 16.6 x 0.5 x 0.7 cm; spoon length 2.2 cm, width 0.7 cm

Draw-knife    Pls. 13 and 27:54

Band-shaped draw-knife with curved, sharp-edged blade. The tangs curve inwards at right angles to the plane of the blade and their ends are bent outwards. No traces of the wooden handle remain.

6.7 x 7.8 cm; blade width 1.2 cm, maximum thickness .0.4 cm.

(?)Draw-knife fragment  PI.28:55

Fragment consisting of a curved blade with a sharpedge along one side and a slightly curved tang. A second tang may have been broken off along with part of the blade. The fracture reveals the triangular section of the blade.

12.2 x 1.5 x 0.5 cm.

Moulding-iron   Pls. 13 and 27:57

Tool used to produce mouldings on wooden objects. On either side of the central support the edge is profiled.  The tangs are curved and bend outwards at the ends.  One tang is incomplete.

8.1 x 9.2 x 0.3 cm; width of blade at the support 1.5 cm; tangs width 0.6 cm, thickness 0.4 cm.

Gouge    PI. 28:58

Curved blade of uniform width with square cutting edge and straight tang of rectangular section. The edge is damaged.

16.4 x 0.9 x 0.6 cm.

Chisel     Pls. 12 and 26:59

Chisel with a broad splayed cutting edge and a straight shaft with faceted edges which continues as a straight tang of approximately square section. The end of the tang is slightly bent to one side and is hammered to a knob similar to a rivet-head.
26.0 x 4.7 x 0.9 cm.

Axe     Pls. 12 and 26:61

Axe with almost straight top contour and two flanges extending downwards on each side of the semi-oval haft-hole. The cutting edge of the blade has rusted away.
Length 22.0 cm, width at cutting edge 6.7 cm, butt 2.0 x 4.5 cm. At the narrowest point the width is 2.3 cm; weight 752 g.

Axe Pls. 12 and 26:62

Similar to no.61 (see above), but this axe originally had a more flared edge ('bearded' axe). The damaged part of the edge has been bent over and hammered down firmly.
15.0 x 4.6 x 2.9 cm; butt 3.0 x 2.3 cm; weight 463 g.

Adze     Pls. 12 and 26:63

T -shaped adze with a broad, slightly curved cutting edge. The butt has a rectangular striking face and a tip which points downwards. There are downward-point- ing flanges on each side of the oval haft-hole. The adze is curved from butt to cutting edge. The cutting edge is damaged.
19.8 x 17.0 x 1.7cm; weight719g.

Adze     Pls. 12 and 26:64

Similar to no.63 (see above), but the cutting edge is slightly curved and unusually narrow. The cutting edge is damaged.
15.5 x 5.9 x 1.4 cm; striking face of peen 1.9 x 2.5 cm; weight 272 g.

Blacksmiths' iron tools

Hammer     Pls. 6 and 20:65

Hammer with thin peen: the bottom contour is almost straight and the top comprises two slightly curved planes which meet in a point at the haft-hole. The hole retains traces of a wooden haft.
16.6 x 2.9 x 3.8 cm; striking face 2.5 x 3.6 cm; weight 724g.

Hammer     Pls. 6 and 21:66

 The surface of the hammer is rough; it is faceted with partly concave sides. One end widens to a rounded head with a domed, convex striking face, while the rectangular striking face at the other end is almost flat. The haft-hole is off-centre. There are traces of the wooden haft.
21.0 x 2.9 x 2.8 cm; weight 602 g.

Hammer     Pls. 6 and 21:67

The haft-hole on this hammer is closer to the peen than to the striking face. There were no traces of wood.
14.5 x 2.6 x 2.6 cm; weight 407 g.

Hammer (stretching hammer)   Pls. 8 and 20:68

The hammer has a rectangular haft-hole near the rounded butt, a slightly faceted head of uniform width and a round, slightly domed and burred striking face. There are perhaps some traces of wood in the haft-hole.
14.8 x 3.0 x 2.1 cm; weight 481 g.

Sledge hammer     Pls. 6 and 20:69
The sledge hammer has a straight bottom and an angled top with the point over the haft-hole. The upper surface has a slight central ridge. The haft-hole retains traces of the wooden haft.
24.5 x 5.6 x 5.6 cm; weight 3370 g.

Sledge hammer    Pls. 6 and 21:70

The bottom of the head is slightly dished, the upper surface is like that described above (no.69) but is not ridged. The haft-hole retains traces of the wooden haft.
21.3 x 3.8 X 5.0 cm; weight 1862 g.

Sledge hammer    Pls. 6 and 21:71

The head tapers a little towards the butt and the peen is thinner towards the end. The top contour is slightly S-shaped. The striking face of the butt is strongly bur- red. There are traces of the wooden haft in the oval haft-hole.
19.7 x 3.9-4.8 x 3.7 cm; weight 1596 h.

Tongs      Pl. 22:43

 Small tongs with flat jaws. Most of the shanks are missing.
6.1 x 5.9 x up to 0.2 cm; shanks width 1.0 cm, thick- ness 0.15 cm; jaws maximum width 1.0 cm.

Smithing tongs     Pls. 7 and 22:44

Well-preserved large tongs with flat jaws. The shanks have round sections, and the other parts rectangular sections.
56.0 x 10.0 x 3.2 cm; shanks length 20.5 cm, thickness about 1.5 cm;jaws maximum width 3.0 cm.

Hack-saw of iron    Pls. 7 and 22:36

 The tool has two parts: a frame of uniform width which continues to form a tapering tang, and a straight, fine- toothed saw-blade, riveted at one end to the front of the frame and at the other end to the point where the tang begins. The join between the front of the frame and the saw-blade has been further strengthened by flattening the frame and bending round the blade of the flattened portion. Frame, tang and blade are flat and ofrectangu- lar section. The saw-blade is slightly damaged.
Total length 24.0 cm, total height 3.6 cm; frame width 0.6-0.8 cm, maximum thickness 0.25 cm; blade width 0.7-1.0 cm, thickness 0.15 cm.

Saw-blade of iron with coarse teeth  Pls. 14 and 26:41

The teeth are set alternately to the right and left. The saw-toothed edge is slightly curved and the blade, which is of almost uniform width, continues in a strong- ly tapering tang. There are no traces of wood on the tang. The tip of the blade is broken off.
34.5 x 2.0 x 0.4 cm.

Plate-shears     Pls. 6 and 22:45

The blades are not sharpened and the shanks are curved. The blades and lower parts of the shanks have rectangular sections, while the upper parts of the shanks have plano-convex sections.
Length 46.7 cm; blades maximum length 1.8 cm, thick- ness 0.4 cm; shanks maximum width 2.2 cm, thickness 1.0 cm.

Cold drill     Pl. 23:52

The cold drill consists of a cylindrical rod, drilled at one end to a tube about 4 cm long. It tapers slightly at the other end where there is a slightly domed striking'face.
36.9 x 1.4 cm; striking face diameter 1.6 cm.

Polishing iron     Pl. 23:53

Tool used to polish soldered joints. It consists of a round iron rod, bent at right angles at one end, while the other end is straight and forged to a narrow edge.
Length 30.0 cm, diameter 0.6 cm, width at edge 0.4 cm.

Anvil      Pls. 9 and 21:72

 Anvil of iron; the narrow base has a slightly concave surface, while the striking face is slightly convex. The shape is roughly, but irregularly, square.
7.8 x 4.0 x 3.0cm.

Anvil      Pls. 9 and 20:73

Anvil of iron, tapering towards the base. The top and bottom faces are both slightly concave. The long sides are flat, the narrow sides curved.
 5.9 x 4.0 x 2.1 cm.

Anvil      Pls. 9 and 20:74

Anvil of iron, presumably used for lighter work. The shape is roughly cylindrical, but very irregular. On two opposite sides there are deep depressions. One side may be damaged. 5.2-6.2 x 4.2 cm.

Anvil (beak-iron)    Pls. 8 and 21:75

 Beak-iron; it is angular with tapering beak and square section. The foot tapers to a point and the section is circular.
Beak length 11.9 cm, width at base 2.7 cm, thickness up to 3.0 cm; foot length 12.6 cm, maximum thickness 2.4 cm.

Anvil (beak-iron)    Pl.21:76
Small beak-iron. A pointed foot of circular section pro- jects from the centre of the striking face. One half of the striking face is of rectangular section and the other half of circular section.
3.4 x 1.0 x 0.8 cm; foot length 2.2 cm.

Underlay     Pls. 8 and 23:77

 This object is made from a coarse iron bar of rectangu- lar section, bent to the shape of an open oval ring. It was perhaps used as an underlay during riveting. 9.2 x 1.8 x 6.2 cm;bar 2.8 x 1.7cm.

Note: Before conservation there were traces of wood from the chest on one side and two smaller (?) iron fragments were rusted to the ring.

Underlay     Pls. 8 and 23:78

Similar to no.77 , but smaller. It is made from a coarse bar of nearly square section with rounded edges. The bar was bent to form an open oval ring.
4.9 x 3.8 x 1.6 cm; bar thickness 1.0 cm.

Punching block or uncompleted draw plate  Pl. 23 :79

 An iron bar , cut at both ends, and slightly curved lengthwise. Along the middle of the bar is a single row of twenty-two round-bottomed holes with traces of what may have been another hole at one end. Seven holes have been struck so hard that the punch perforated the bar .
16.4 x 1.2 x 0.4 cm.

Punching block or uncompleted draw plate  Pl. 23 :80

A flat iron bar which tapers at both ends. Twenty-six holes, six of which perforate the bar , are placed in two irregular rows.
13.7 x 1.2 x 0.3 cm.

(?) Draw plate blank     Pl. 23:81

Similar to nos. 79-80 but without punch marks,
12.9 x 1.1 x 0.4 cm.

Dolley       Pl. 23:82

 A bar of round section, hollow at one end. 10.1 x 1.5 cm; striking face 2.2 cm.
The tool was used during riveting, serving to hold firm the
members of wood which were to be joined, as for instance when riveting the planks of a boat.

Tool       Pl. 29:83

(?) Chisel. A curved square rod with one end forged to a thin but unsharpened edge, and the other turned over to form an open loop parallel to the edge.
15.4 x 0.9 x 1.2 cm.

Stamp punch      Pl. 22:84

A square rod which thickens towards the striking face. The surface of the stamp, which is much damaged by wear and rusting, has an ornament of hour-glass shape. It is no longer possible to verify this description.
7.5 x 0.4-0.8 x 0.4-0.7 cm; striking face diameter 0.9 cm.

Stamping pad of lead     Pls. 10 and 22:85

An irregularly shaped pad of lead: on both sides there are impressions which may have been made by the stamp no.84, as well as of circles and small holes. The hour-glass ornament is sometimes arranged in irregular , ribbon-like rows.
5.9 x 5.0 x 0.4 cm.

Note. The impressions in the lead show three dots at each corner of the triangles which make up the motif. These dots could not be seen on the stamp either before or after conservation.

Nail-making iron     Pls. 12 and 23:86

The nail-making iron is made from a thick rectangular bar with a forged faceted handle at one end. Along the centre are five holes, four nearly conical and one cylin- drical.
22.9 x 1.9-3.8 x 2.1 cm. The maximum and minimum diameter of the conical holes varies: maximum 0.8-1.1 cm, minimum 0.6-1.0 cm; the cylindrical hole diameter 1.1 cm.

Other tools and objects

Scraper or ash-rake     Pl. 29:60

Iron rod handle with a transverse rectangular plate secured by two rivets.
Length 26.9 cm, plate 9.5 x 5.4 x 0.1-0.2 cm.

Two trace-rings of iron    Pls. 4 and 18:87-88

Rings for fastening traces to the axle-tree of a cart (see Almgren 1946). The rings are made from an iron rod, part of which is hammered flat and shaped into a large loop: the outside edge is thinner than the inside edge. The ends of the rod are twisted to form a shank which ends in a smaller round loop in the same plane as the large loop.
No.87: length 22.5 cm; large loop diameter 10.7 cm; small loop diameter 4.5 cm, thickness 1.4 cm.
No.88: length 23.4 cm; large loop diameter 10.0 cm; small loop diameter 4.3 cm, thickness 1.6 cm.

Two trace-rings of iron    Pls. 4 and 18:89-90

Rings for fastening traces to the axle-tree of a cart. Each ring is made from a single rod and consists of a larger flat loop and a smaller loop of circular section. When no.89 was originally catalogued and drawn, a small S-shaped iron rod ( = Pl. 30: 125 b) was attached to the smaller loop.
No.89: length 14.0 cm; large loop diameter 11.2 cm; thickness large loop 0.9 cm, small loop 1.2 cm.
No.90: length 13.6 cm; large loop diameter 11.1 cm; thickness large loop 0.9 cm, small loop 1.1 cm.

Round disc of iron     Pl. 18:91

Disc with a squarish hole in the middle and a sharp edge all the way round.
Diameter 10.2 cm, thickness at the hole 0.5 cm, at the edge 0.05 cm; hole 1.5xl.6 cm.

Two tripod stands and part of a (?)tripod stand of iron  Pls. 9 and 29:92, 93, 125 d

The tripod stands may have served to support hot cru- cibles. The end of each leg is bent over at right angles to form a tapering pointed foot. The stands were made from iron rods of square section.
No 125 d is perhaps part of a tripod stand which was similar to nos. 92-93 but heavier. Only one leg remains: it is bent at the end to form a foot. It has been suggested that this fragment instead could be the end part of a sickle.
No.92: 11.5 x 8.8 x 2.0 cm. No.93: 11.8 x 9.2 x 1.8 cm.
No.125 d: 7.5 x 1.7-2.5 x 1.7 cm.

Awl of iron      Pl. 29:94

 Round awl, tapering to a fine point, with a tang of rectangular section.
13.0 x 1.1-0.7 x 0.4 cm.

Object of iron     Pl. 29:95

 Rod of rectangular section tapering to points at both ends. One end is slightly and evenly curved, while the other is more curved and possibly damaged.
10.6 x 0.5 x 0.4 cm.

Tool of unknown use with wooden handle  Pls. 14 and 29:96

Two short blunt iron shanks with a long thin tang which apparently extends the whole length of the well-finished spruce handle. The section of the handle is almost cir- cular.
12.8 x 2.4 cm; handle length 12.6, diameter 2.3-2.4 cm.

(?)Scribing tool of iron with wooden handle  Pls. 14 and 27:97

One side of the iron is finely serrated from the marked spur just below the wooden handle to the (possibly damaged) tip. The tang probably extends the whole length of the handle. At the end of the handle is a groove cutting in from the circumference to just past the centre. The wood is well-polished ash, and the handle has a rounded oval section.
Total length 13.1 cm; visible part of iron 3.3 x 1.1 x 0.4 cm; handle 9.8 x 1.8-2.4 cm.

Four rings (collars) of iron    Pl.28:98-101

It is likely that these collars belong to the handles of the spoon-augers (nos. 46-51). Three collars are open and one (no.100) is closed. Nos. 98 and 99 are almost identical in size and have triangular sections.
No. 98: 3.5 x2.8 x 1.lcm. No.99: 3.6 x 2.6 x 1.4 cm.
No.100: 3.3 x 3.3 x 0.8 cm. No.101: 3.2 x 2.8 x 1.0 cm.

Spatula of iron     Pl.29:102

Rounded oval flat disc with a very thin tang of rectangular section.
15.0 x 1.5 x 0.3 cm.

U-shaped shackle of iron    Pl. 28: 103

The ends of the shackle are broadened and pierced to take the missing bolt. Before conservation the shackle was rusted to the concave side of the cauldron fragment Pl. 25**
33.3 x 2.0 cm; rod thickness 0.6 cm.

Tool of iron.      Pl. 20: 104

Tool of unknown use. The thinner end has a striking face while the other is slightly concave. The tool is of irregular square section with rounded edges.
15.0 x 3.0-4.0 x 1.5-2.5 cm.

Part of coarse tool of iron    Pl. 27: 105

(?)Chisel. Rectangular iron bar , the narrow sides flat, the broad sides irregularly concave. The preserved end has a flat striking face, which is slightly burred; there is an irregular fracture at the other end. The section is for the most part octagonal as the edges have been be- veiled.
16.0 x3.0 x 2.7 cm.

Two elongated iron bars   Pls. 14 and 22: 110-111

The bars are of varying width and thickness, and their ends are fractured or damaged. Hallinder (1978,45) has referred to these as 'currency bars'.
No. 110: 51.0 x 4.6-2.8 x 1.0-0.5 cm; weight 906 g.
No. Ill: 48.5 x 4.4-3.0 x 1.0-0.3 cm, weight 872 g.

Slate whetstone or blank    Pl. 27: 122

 A rough piece of irregular rectangular section. One end is cut obliquely and the other is broken and splintered. 36.6 x 3.5 x 1.{}-1.5 cm.

Slate whetstone     Pls. 13 and 27: 123

Whetstone of grey slate. Three faces are ground fairly ~mooth while one broad face shows very irregular ~rinding marks. One narrow face has a shallow groove ind fine scoring. The whetstone is broken at both ends.
15.4 x 1.3 x 1.1 cm.

Indeterminate objects and fragments

Iron object      Pl. 27:56

rhe use of this object is unknown. A central part forms i semi-circular channel, tapering symmetrically at both ~nds where two narrow shanks, tenninating in points, ire bent over almost at right angles to the central part. rhere is some damage to the edge of the channel.
Length 18.0 cm, maximum width 1.9 cm, depth of :hannel 1.2 cm; shanks length 6.4 cm and 6.6 cm.

Object of iron      Pl. 29: 106

A square rod, one end forming a close loop, the other ~nd bent to a tapering curve; this end is incomplete and nuch damaged by rust.
9.3 x 0.9 x 0.8 cm; loop diameter 2.1 cm.

Three iron nails     Pl. 23: 107-109

The nail heads are either flat or slightly domed. Only )ne nail is complete.
Length 9.7 cm, 4.7 cm and 2.5 cm.

Box-shaped mount of iron    Pl. 27: 112

Perhaps a ferrule for a handle of circular section; it is made in one piece, of cylindrical shape with a thick base. The upper edge is damaged and incomplete. The original height was probably irregular .There are traces of a deposit on the inside, perhaps of wood without actual fibres.
Maximum height 3.7 cm; diameter at top 3.1 cm, dia- meter at bottom 2.9; thickness of base about 0.7 cm.

Mount of sheet-iron     Pl. 19: 113

 Mount with three rivet-holes which have raised edges at the back.
13.5 x 2.7-1.7 x 0.2-0.1 cm.

Angular mount of sheet-iron    Pl. 19: 114

The mount retains a pin (length 1.0 cm, with no traces of wood) and is pierced by two holes from pins or rivets.
4.2 x 4.0; width of arms 1.8-1.6 cm; thickness 0.05 cm.

Iron loop      Pl. 19: 115

The loop may be part of a handle attachment or hinge (cf. the hinges on the chest, no.132). It is made from an iron rod of circular section with the ends hammered to a thin plate of irregular rectangular shape. There are two irregular rivet-holes near the loop and at the other end of the plate there is an asymmetrical rhomboid hole which may have been caused by damage.
7.0 x 3.0 x 0.6-0.1 cm.

Part of a band-shaped mount of sheet-iron  Pl. 19: 116

The mount has three irregularly spaced holes, one a circular rivet-hole, the other two angular. The sides may be original; one end is cut and the other damaged. 4.8 x 1.8 x 0.2 cm.

Square plate of (?)sheet-copper   Pl. 19: 117

In antiquity the plate probably had a large rivet-hole at each comer (one corner is missing) .The raised edges around the holes on the back presumably indicate that the plate was originally attached to a soft material such as wood or leather. On the front faint rings 0.6 cm in diameter left by the rivet-heads can be traced round the holes.
3.1 x 3.0 x 0.1 cm.

Iron loop      Pl. 29: 118

Loop made from a round iron rod terminating in a straight tapering shank by which the loop was riveted to a (?)wooden object 4.0-4.5 cm thick. No wood fibres remain.
10.5 x 3.5 x 0.7 cm; washer 2.2 x 1.8 x 0.1 cm.

(?)Part of a handle attachment of iron  Pl. 25: 119

Round rod bent at one end to form a loop and hammered to the forged plate which is broken off, the break cutting across a large rivet-hole (cf. no 125 c which looks similar and has the same patina; however , the two pieces do not fit) .
3.6 x 2.2 x 0.6-0.1 cm.

Coarse round iron rod                    Pl. 30: 120

The rod is cut off at each end, and its surface is some- what rough.
7.9 x 1.7 cm.

Part of iron band of uniform width   Pl. 25: 121

The band is slightly curved; both edges are original and one is slightly thickened with a narrow flange on the inside.
4.7 x 1.9 x 0.3 cm.

Part of a broad iron band                Pl. 22: 124

(?)Stamping pad. In the centre the object has two narrow rectangular depressions, one of which has an uneven bottom. It is broken at both ends. 6.4 x 2.5 x O.5-0.7cm.

Miscellaneous fragments

Sixty-six 'fragments' are listed under no. 125 in the museum's catalogue:

Pls. 24,25,29 and 30:125

a) (?) Blank; a fragment like a small spearhead with a
central ridge on each side. One end is lightly hammered to resemble a tang, and the other end is cut. There are no cutting edges (Pl. 30). 10.7 x 2.8 x1.0-0.6cm.

b) Part of a raw iron bar; one end is roughly shaped as a tang of circular section and cut irregularly at the end. The other end is also cut, but rounded, and has a notch in the edge (Pl. 25). 8.9 x 2.4 x1.1 cm.

c) Incomplete (?) knife-blade; the back and the un- sharpened edge diverge slightly; both ends are cut.

Note. It is possible that this object is part of the (?)handle attachmen1 no.119.

d) Part of a (?)trefoil stand: a portion of a flat leg with a tapering foot set at right angles. Both ends are cut; cf. nos. 92, 93, (Pl. 29).
7.2 x 2.4-0.7 x 0.4 cm.

e-m) Nine small pieces of iron from indeterminate objects: the objects are mostly of sheet-iron; several have rivet-holes or rivet-heads attached; the pieces vary widely in size and shape. A very thin curved iron rod (125 m) of rectangular section retains a pin with a small head near the centre. This fragment measures 6.5 x 0.5 x 0.1 cm (Pl. 30).

n) Six small pieces of round or square rods with traces of working. One round rod has been damaged by bending. A fragment of a round faceted rod may be part of the hook of a handle. This fragment measures 2.6 x 0.7 x 0.6 cm (Pl. 25).
Lengths 6.2-2.8 cm.

 o) Three pieces of sheet-iron: much damaged by rust and bending. The smallest piece is pierced by a fairly large rivet hole.
Largest piece 13.5 x 13.0 x 0.1 cm. (Pl. 25).

 p) Eight curved thin narrow iron rods: two of the pieces represent about half a ring, a third piece about two thirds of a ring. Sizes and widths vary (Pl. 30).
Largest piece 4.3 x 1.0 x 0.2 cm; smallest piece 2.5 x 0.4 x 0.1 cm.

r) Six pieces of scrap: some are probably parts of raw-iron bars. Dimensions vary; both ends are cut on all pieces except in one case where one rounded end is preserved.
Largest piece 3.6 x 2.7 x 1.0 cm; smallest piece 2.7 x 0.8 x 0.4 cm.

s) Fifteen pieces of sheet-iron of varying sizes, shapes and dimensions. All are indeterminate and badly rusted; some are bent.
Largest piece 4.9 x 3.5 x 0.4 cm; smallest piece 1.7 x 1.0 x 0.1 cm.

t) Half an iron collar(?) for a heavy handle: the smooth original surface of the upper edge is preserved; one end is straight and even and may be original. The remaining edges are very uneven and badly damaged. The piece has been damaged by bending.
Diameter about 3.9 cm, height 2.5 cm, thickness 0.2 cm.

u) Folded and hammered iron plate, originally pro- bably circular , with rivet-holes near the edge. The dis- tance between the holes is about 4.5 cm. There is possibly a slightly domed rivet-head (Pl. 24).
Diameter about 17 cm, thickness 0.2 cm.

Fifteen objects of iron     Pls. 25 and 30:126

In the museum's catalogue these objects are listed  under no.126:

a) Eleven pieces of raw-iron bars of rectangular sec- tion and varying dimensions. All are cut at both ends; (Pls. 25 and 30).
Lengths from 2.5 cm to 10.0 cm.

b) Two pieces of an iron bar probably with one origi- nal rounded end; the other end is cut.
4.8 x 2.5 x 0.3-0.6 cm and 9.0 x 1.9 x 1.2 cm.

c) Piece of an iron rod with partly grooved sides. The surface is very rough, and the rod tapers. It is damaged or perhaps cut at both ends (Pl. 25). 8.4 x 1.5 x 0.2-0.6 cm.

d) Lump of iron consisting of seven pieces of rawiron bars like those described above, lightly forged together. The individual pieces are of varying dimensions (Pl. 30).
Maximum measurements of apiece 13.8 x 4.3 x 0.8 cm; total weight 1291 g.

Brass cake      Pl. 27: 127

The cake is iITegular in shape: one side is very rough and pitted, the other is flat with slight iITegular ridges, reflecting the texture of the surface on which the metal was poured.
5.5 x 3.7 x 0.7 cm.

Tine of elk antler     Pl.23:128

Sawn-off end of an elk-antler tine. 6.0 x 3.3 x 1.7 cm.

Two pieces of maple wood    Pl.28:129-130

The pieces have oval sections, are well finished and cut at both ends. They are not otherwise shaped and there is no indication of their use. The present condition of the wood is hard and firm, and the light colour has been preserved.
No.129: 8.0 x 2.0 x 2.8 cm. No.130: 8.5 x 2.0 x 2.9 cm.
No.131: the catalogue lists another wood fragment under this number, but this is now missing.

Part of a twisted rope of leather strands  Pl. 29: 133

The rope is Z-twisted from three S-twisted strands. It is very fragile.
The largest piece: length about 5.0 cm, thickness 1.0 cm.

Notes on nos. 129-131, 133 and the unnumbered cauldron fragment (p. II).
There is no information on where the pieces of wood and the rope fragments were found. It is possible that they were in the chest, as they are not included in the descriptions com- piled before conservation and thus before the chest was completely emptied of all the smallest fragments.
It is possible that the cauldron fragment (unnumbered, p. II) was found in the same way. This object was not included in the preliminary descriptions of the find, nor is it in the museum's present catalogue.